Note on authorship: I recently changed authorship conventions to match those predominant in my department. Starting with papers published in 2010, I am last author on all papers coming out of my lab.

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Selected Publications

Schulz, L. (2012) The origins of inquiry: Inductive inference and exploration in early childhood. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 382-389.

Gweon, H., & Schulz, L. E. (2011). 16-month-olds rationally infer causes of failed actions. Science, 332(6037), 1524.

Gweon, H., Tenenbaum, J., & Schulz, L. E. (2010). Infants consider both the sample and the sampling process in inductive generalization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(20), 9066-9071.


Wu, Y., Muentener, P. & Schulz, L.E. (2015). The invisible hand: Toddlers connect probabilistic events with agentive causes Cognitive Science, 1(23).

Schulz, L. (2015). Infants explore the unexpected. Comment on Observing the unexpected enhances infants' learning and exploration. Science, 3(6230), 42-43.

Jara-Ettinger, J., Gweon, H., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Schulz, L. E. (2015). Children's understanding of the costs and rewards underlying rational action. Cognition.

Jara-Ettinger, J., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Schulz, L. E. (2015). Not so innocent: Toddlers' inferences about costs and culpability. Psychological Science.

Magid, R., Sheskin, M. & Schulz, L.E. (2015). Imagination and the generation of new ideas. Cognitive Development.

Muentener, P., & Schulz, L.E. (2014). Toddlers infer unobserved causes for spontaneous events. Frontiers in psychology. 5:1496. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01496

Gweon, H., Pelton, H., Konopka, J.A. & Schulz, L.E. (2014). Sins of omission: Children selectively explore when agents fail to tell the whole truth. Cognition.

Muentener, P., Friel, D., & Schulz, L.E. (2012). Giving the Giggles: Prediction, Intervention, and Young Children's Representation of Psychological Events. PLoS ONE, 7(8).

Muentener, P., Bonawitz, E., Horowitz, A., & Schulz, L. (2012). Mind the gap: Investigating toddlers' sensitivity to contact relations in predictive events. PLoS ONE, 7(4).

Bonawitz, E. B., Fischer, A., & Schulz, L.E. (2012). Teaching the Bayesian child: Three-and-a-half-year-olds’ reasoning about ambiguous evidence. Journal of Cognition and Development. 

Bonawitz, E. B., van Schijndel, T. J. P., Friel, D., & Schulz, L. E. (2012). Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning. Cognitive Psychology, 64(4), 215-234.

Muentener, P. & Schulz, L. (2012). What doesn’t go without saying: Communication, induction, and exploration. Language, Learning, and Development, 8, 61-85.

Cook, C., Goodman, N., & Schulz, L. E. (2011). Where science starts: Spontaneous experiments in preschoolers' exploratory play. Cognition, 120(3), 341-349.

Bonawitz, E. B., Shafto, P., Gweon, H., Goodman, N., Spelke, E. & Schulz, L. E. (2011). The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Teaching limits children’s spontaneous exploration and discovery. Cognition, 120(3), 322-330.

Bonawitz, E.B., Ferranti, D., Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. Woodward, J., & Schulz, L.E. (2010). Just do it? Toddlers’ ability to integrate prediction and action in causal inference. Cognition, 115, 104-117.

Kushnir, T., Gopnik, A., Lucas C., & Schulz, L. E. (2009). Inferring hidden causal structure. Cognitive Science 34(2010), 148-160.

Schulz, L.E., Goodman, N.D., Tenenbaum, J.B., & Jenkins, C.A. (2008). Going beyond the evidence: Abstract laws and preschoolers' responses to anomalous data. Cognition, 109(2), 211-223.

Schulz, L.E., Hooppell, K., & Jenkins, A. (2008). Judicious Imitation: Young children imitate deterministic actions exactly, stochastic actions more variably. Child Development, 79(20), 395-410.

Schulz, L.E., Standing, H., & Bonawitz, E.B. (2008). Word, thought and deed: The role of object labels in children's inductive inferences and exploratory play. Developmental Psychology, 44(5), 1266-1276.

Shtulman, A. & Schulz, L.E. (2008). The relationship between essentialist beliefs and evolutionary reasoning. Cognitive Science, 32(6), 1049-1062. [PDF]

Schulz, L.E., Bonawitz, E. B., & Griffiths, T. (2007). Can being scared make your tummyache? Naive theories, ambiguous evidence and preschoolers' causal inferences. Developmental Psychology, 43(5), 1124-1139.

Schulz, L.E. & Bonawitz, E. B. (2007) Serious Fun: Preschoolers engage in more exploratory play when evidence is confounded. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 1045-1050.

Saxe, R., Schulz, L., & Jiang, Y. (2007). Reading minds versus following rules: Dissociating theory of mind and executive control in the brain. Social Neuroscience.

Schulz, L. E., Gopnik, A., & Glymour, C. (2007). Preschool children learn about causal structure from conditional interventions. Developmental Science 10(3), 322-332.

Schulz, L. E. & Sommerville, J. (2006). God does not play dice: Causal determinism and children's inferences about unobserved causes. Child Development, 77 (2), 427-442.

Gopnik, A. & Schulz, L. E. (2004). Mechanisms of theory-formation in young children. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8(8), 371-377.

Schulz, L. E. & Gopnik, A. (2004). Causal learning across domains, Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 162-176.

Gopnik, A., Glymour, C., Sobel, D., Schulz, L. E., Kushnir, T., & Danks, D. (2004). A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets. Psychological Review, 111, 1-31.

Gopnik, A., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., & Glymour, C. (2001). Causal learning mechanisms in very young children: Two-, three-, and four-year-olds infer causal relations from patterns of variation and covariation. Developmental Psychology, 37(5), 620-629.